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Home > Newsletters > August 2010 > Recent Research

Points - Recent Research

Neuroprotective Effects of Yi Gan San on MPP+/MPTP-Induced Cytotoxicity
The Effect of Acorus Gramineus (Shi Chang Pu) on the Bioavailabilities and Brain Concentrations of Ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1
  Protective Effect of Smilax Glabra (Tu Fu Ling) Extract Against Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

Neuroprotective Effects of Yi Gan San on MPP+/MPTP-Induced Cytotoxicity

Doo AR, et al. Studies of Translational Acupuncture Research (STAR), Acupuncture & Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea; Department of Meridian and Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A traditional herb, Yi-Gan San, has been widely used for the management of neurodegenerative disorders in traditional East Asian Medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Yi-Gan San in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo and sought to clarify its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of Yi-Gan San on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine was measured in terms of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, caspase-3 activity, and western blot analysis of phosphorylated Akt, one of the survival-related signaling proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of Yi-Gan San were also confirmed in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonian mouse model using a rotarod test and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pretreatment of Yi-Gan San with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine showed a significant protective effect on SH-SY5Y cells and significantly decreased the level of caspase-3 activity compared to the values for the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-treated cells. This process increased the protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt, and an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt, LY294002, significantly decreased this protective effect of Yi-Gan San. In the mouse Parkinson's disease model, treatment with Yi-Gan San also significantly improved motor functioning and prevented dopaminergic loss related to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine challenge. CONCLUSION: Using both in vitro and in vivo methods, this study revealed that Yi-Gan San has neuroprotective effects and rescues dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity, possibly via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 12.

Source: PubMed


The Effect of Acorus Gramineus (Shi Chang Pu) on the Bioavailabilities and Brain Concentrations of Ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1

Wang W, et al. Institute of Medicinal Plant Development (IMPLAD), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 151, Malianwa North Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, PR China.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect of Acorus gramineus (AG), a supposed 'delivering servant' according to traditional Chinese medicine principles governing multi-herb formula preparation and formulation, on facilitating the uptake of ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1 to the brain after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) preparations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ginseng extracts or KXS with or without AG were administered to rats for pharmacokinetic study and mice for behaviour tests at a dose of 3g ginseng per kg. The concentrations of ginsenosides in plasma and brain were determined by an LC-MS/MS method, whilst the effects of preparations on spatial learning were evaluated using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: KXS in the presence of AG tended to significantly reverse the learning impairment induced by scopolamine. The presence of AG in the KXS formula led to increases in the initial absorption rate and extent of Rg1 and Re in terms of Cmax1 and AUC(0-3h) compared to KXS without AG. Although KXS were found to increase the bioavailabilities and brain concentrations of ginsenosides relative to ginseng extract, the brain-to-plasma AUC(0-12h) ratios appeared not to be affected. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the presence of AG in the KXS formula promoted the initial absorption of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re in the gastrointestinal tract, but unlikely affected the brain-to-plasma AUC ratios.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jun 30.

Source: PubMed


Protective Effect of Smilax Glabra (Tu Fu Ling) Extract Against Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

Xia D, et al. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 84th Mailbox, 548 Binwen Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310053, China.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Smilax glabra Roxb. is a traditional Chinese herb, the rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of lead poisoning. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of Smilax glabra extract (SGE) individually or combined with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) against the effects of lead acetate on oxidative stress and lead burden in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biochemical parameters and enzymes in different treated rats were determined by commercial kits. The metal concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: SGE (300mg/kg) showed very low toxicity to organs in non-lead exposed rats. Administration of SGE individually had no effect on blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level but significantly enhanced the glutathione (GSH) content and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in lead exposed rats. The co-treatment of SGE and DMSA had a synergism in increasing brain, liver and kidney superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and GSH level, and decreasing oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Moreover, the co-treatment could improve the hepatic and renal histopathology changes. SGE as chelating agent showed significant efficiency in reducing blood and tissue lead burden. CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo results suggested that SGE individually or combined with DMSA exhibited remarkable protective effects on lead-induced oxidative stress and lead burden in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):414-420.

Source: PubMed


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August 2010
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