Electrophysiological Assessment of Acupuncture Points
Kao MJ, et al. From the China Medical University and the Department of Physical
Medicine & Rehabilitation, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (M-JK); and the
Department of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Salu, Taiwan (Y-LH, F-JK,
Kao M-J, Hsieh Y-L, Kuo F-J, Hong C-Z: Electrophysiological assessment of
acupuncture points. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006;85:443-448. OBJECTIVE: This study
was designed to assess the occurrence of end plate noise (EPN) in an acupuncture
point (AcP). DESIGN: Ten male and 10 female normal volunteers were included in
this study. For each subject, mapping of the distribution of EPN loci in an AcP
region of Stomach-36 in one leg selected randomly, and also in a nearby non-AcP
region in the other leg as a control, was performed with electromyographic
recordings. RESULTS: There were significantly more EPN loci in the AcP region of
Stomach-36 than in the non-AcP region near this AcP. Whenever the searching
needle approached an EPN locus, the subjects always felt pain, soreness, or an
unpleasant sensation. This feeling was rarely reported when no EPN was recorded
from any site in either an AcP region or a non-AcP region. After
electromyographic study, every AcP was confirmed as a myofascial trigger point.
CONCLUSIONS: Similar to the distribution of EPN loci in an MTrP region,
significantly more EPN loci can be identified in an AcP region of Stomach-36
than in a nearby non-AcP site. This study provides additional support to the
hypothesis that some AcPs are also myofascial trigger points.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 May;85(5):443-8.
The Use of
Acupuncture in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Dysfunction
Rosted P, et al. Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK. Prosted@aol.com
OBJECTIVE: Temporomandibular dysfunction often represents a major therapeutic
problem in a dental practice. Evidence from clinical studies suggests that
acupuncture may be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular dysfunction.
However, most studies have been performed in university settings. The aims of
this study were to determine if the results of acupuncture treatment of
temporomandibular dysfunction in general dental practice are comparable to the
results obtained in previous studies in university clinics, and whether the
treatment approach differs from that used in previous studies. METHODS: The case
reports submitted by 15 dentists applying for the diploma of the British Dental
Acupuncture Society were combined into one audit. All dentists were informed
before submitting the forms that the data might be used for scientific purposes.
The criteria for Pain Syndrome Dysfunction were used as inclusion criteria. A
visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain intensity before and
after acupuncture treatment. The acupuncture points and technique used were
recorded for each treatment. RESULTS: A total number of 70 case reports were
received. Ten patients were excluded, as they did not fulfil the criteria. The
remaining 60 patients (50 female) fulfilled an average of 3.2 of the Pain
Syndrome Dysfunction criteria, out of a possible five. Their mean age was 40.6
years (range 14-68). The average duration of temporomandibular dysfunction was
32 months (range 1-180). The patients received a mean of 3.4 treatments, each
treatment lasting on average 12 minutes. The dentists used only manual
stimulation, and mainly acupuncture points over the temporomandibular joint and
in the masticatory muscles, points on the neck, and additional relaxing points.
The mean pain scores were 7.35 (SD 1.52) before treatment and 2.67 (SD 0.58)
after treatment (P < 0.001). A beneficial effect was observed in 85% with an
average reduction in the pain intensity of 75%. CONCLUSION: This audit shows
that the results of using acupuncture in the treatment of temporomandibular
dysfunction in a general dental practice are comparable to those obtained in
clinical studies in university settings. Also the therapeutic approach of using
acupuncture is similar. Thus, acupuncture is a simple, relatively safe and
potentially efficacious and useful technique in the management of
temporomandibular dysfunction in a general dental practice.
Acupunct Med. 2006 Mar;24(1):16-22
Extract of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Hepatic
Apoptosis in Rats
Lee TY, et al., Graduate Institute of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Apoptosis is one of the events that are involved in liver fibrogenesis. Thus,
factors that affect apoptosis may be used to modulate liver fibrosis. We have
recently reported that Salvia miltiorrhiza plays a protective role in carbon
tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to
evaluate whether S. miltiorrhiza modulated CCl(4)-induced hepatic apoptosis in
rats. Male Wistar rats were given orally either vehicle or water-extract of S.
miltiorrhiza (50 mg kg(-1) twice daily) for nine weeks beginning from the start
of CCl(4) administration. A group of normal rats was included for comparison.
Hepatocyte DNA fragmentation and cytosolic caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity were
determined in the experimental animals. Hepatic cytosolic Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome
c, and calpain-mu expressions were measured by Western blot analysis. Hepatic
mitochondrial glutathione levels were assessed by colorimetric assay. Compared
with normal rats, rats receiving CCl(4) alone showed profound DNA fragmentation
associated with an increased cytosolic fraction of cytochrome c and calpain-mu
protein expressions and a decreased mitochondrial glutathione level. In
contrast, a decreased laddering of DNA fragmentation was noted in rats receiving
CCl(4) plus S. miltiorrhiza extract. The mitochondrial glutathione level was
significantly increased in rats receiving CCl(4) plus S. miltiorrhiza extract
compared with those receiving CCl(4) alone. Additionally, cytosolic caspase-3
activity and cytosolic fractions of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, and calpain-mu
protein expressions were decreased in rats receiving CCl(4) plus S. miltiorrhiza
extract compared with those receiving CCl(4) alone. The cytosolic caspase-8
activity in rats receiving CCl(4) alone was no different from those receiving
CCl(4) plus S. miltiorrhiza extract. These results indicated that chronic
administration of S. miltiorrhiza ameliorated CCl(4)-mediatd hepatic apoptosis
in rats. This effect may be related to the antioxidant properties of S.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006 May;58(5):659-65