Auricular Electroacupuncture Reduces Frequency
and Severity of Raynaud Attacks
Schlager O, et al. Division of Angiology, Department
of Internal Medicine II, Vienna Medical University, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been shown to influence skin
perfusion and the subjective cold perception threshold. Therefore, we hypothesized that auricular
electroacupuncture (EA) might reduce symptoms in primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP). METHODS: Twenty-six
patients with PRP received 6 cycles of auricular EA. After 3, 6 and 24 weeks attack frequency and severity
were reevaluated using standardized questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Skin temperature was
assessed by infrared thermography and laser Doppler perfusion imaging was used to determine skin
perfusion. RESULTS: Compared to baseline we found a significant reduction of attack frequency after 3
(p = 0.001) and 6 weeks (p < 0.001) of auricular EA. This improvement sustained following cessation of
EA, after 24 weeks (p < 0.001). Furthermore, attack associated pain was reduced after 3 (p = 0.003),
6 (p = 0.003) and 24 weeks (p = 0.001) of treatment, while skin temperature and skin perfusion did not
change significantly throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Auricular EA reduces symptoms by means
of frequency and severity of attacks in PRP but has no influence on skin perfusion and skin
Wien Klin Wochenschr. . 2011 Feb 17.
Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidant Activities of
Jiang-Zhi-Ning in Traditional Chinese Medicine
Chen J, et al. Beijing University of Chinese
Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, ChaoYang District, Beijing, 100029, P.R.China.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN) is composed of four Chinese herbs. i.e., Fleeceflower Root, Fructus Crataegi, Folium Nelumbinis and Semen Cassiae. It was used to strengthen blood circulation of coronary artery, arrhythmia and hyperlipidemia.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The main objective of this paper is to evaluate lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of extract and effective fraction of JZN by using in vitro experiments on hyperlipidemic rats. Moreover, in vivo experiments on cells were performed to investigate lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: Wistar rats with high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia were used as in vitro models to study biological effects of lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of extract and effective fraction JZN. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Coronary Index and Atherogenic Index were investigated to evaluate lipid-lowering effects of extract and effective fraction JZN. Serum total nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were detected to measure antioxidant effects of extract and effective fraction JZN. Furthermore, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) model was employed as in vivo experiments to study lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. NO, ET-1, MDA SOD and T-AOC in HUVEC cells or culture media were investigated to evaluate antioxidant activity of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. Using human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology was performed to investigate cholesterol metabolism effects of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN. Expressions of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), 3 - hydroxy -3 -methyl - HMG-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA of the liver cells were investigated to evaluate JZN on associated receptor and enzymes of cholesterol metabolism. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry were used to study the impact of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN on synthesis and translation of cholesterol during the process of metabolism by measuring inside and extracellular contents of total bile acid (TBA) of Bel-7402. RESULTS: Extract and effective fraction of JZN significantly reduced contents of TC, TG and LDL-C, CRI and AI in hyperlipidemic rats as well as significantly increased contents of HDL-C in the rats. Moreover, they significantly enhanced activity of NOS and increased contents of NO. They also caused significant reductions in contents of ET-1 and MDA as well as significant increase in SOD activity and T-AOC in the hyperlipidemic rats. Several indicators were found to be concentration-dependent. As far as in vivo experiments to investigate biological activities of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN were concerned, it was found that they restored and enhanced
Vitality of HUVEC cells with a concentration-dependent manner as well as content of NO in the culture media of HUVEC. They caused reductions in the contents of ET-1 in the culture media of HUVEC and contents of MDA in HUVEC cells. They also caused increase in
Vitality of SOD and T-AOC in HUVEC cells. Furthermore, they enhance LDL-R mRNA expression, with a concentration-dependent manner. Low and medium concentration of effective fraction and active constituents of JZN could inhibit expression of HMG-CoAR) mRNA. High concentration counterpart could enhance expression of the HMG-CoAR mRNA. They enhanced expression of CYP7A1 mRNA in a manner of concentration-dependent. Finally, they caused reductions in contents of cholesterol in Bel-7402. They also increased intercellular content of total bile acid as well as lowered extracellular contents of TBA in the cells both in a concentration-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated for the first time lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of extract and effective fractions as well as active constituents of JZN. Active constituents of JZN had same biological effects with effective fraction and extract of JZN. Therefore, this study supports its ethnopharmacological use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to manage Hyperlipidemia and paves a basis for establishing quality control method of Chinese medicine.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Feb 10.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction
Lu J, et al. Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical
University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction (HLJDD) (Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese) as a famous traditional Chinese recipe is composed of Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, Cortex phellodendri and Fructus gardeniae. It has been used to treat inflammation for nearly two thousand years. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the material base for the anti-inflammatory activity of formula HLJDD, its extract was fractionated on D101 macroporous resin to afford two fractions, HLJDD-1 and HLJDD-2. The whole formula, HLJDD-1 and HLJDD-2, and four typical component compounds were then evaluated for their effects on inflammation-related parameters using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells as a model system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of HLJDD on carrageenan-induced mice paw edema was first evaluated. A series of inflammation-related parameters including malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were then measured in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells treated with HLJDD, its two fractions, and four typical component compounds (geniposide, baicalin, berberine and baicalein).
RESULTS: With the help of principal component analysis (PCA) technique, the data obtained revealed that the two fractions and the major group of compounds in HLJDD (iridoids, flavonoids and alkaloids) complement each other with particular emphasis to synergistically exert anti-inflammatory effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that HLJDD exhibited anti-inflammatory effect as a "whole," which justified the combined use of the four component herbs forming the compound prescription and suggested quality control of HLJDD based on its three types of components.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Feb 4.