Points - Recent Research
Detection of Peripheral and Central Sensitization at Acupoints in Patients with Unilateral Shoulder Pain
Scalp Acupuncture Attenuates Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Hemorrhagic Stroke
Liposomal Andrographolide Dry Powder Inhalers for Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia Via Anti-Inflammatory Pathway

Detection of Peripheral and Central Sensitization at Acupoints in Patients with Unilateral Shoulder Pain

Yan CQ1, et al.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of experimental pain responses at acupoints in patients with unilateral shoulder pain.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional matched study.
SETTING: Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University.
PARTICIPANTS: Volunteer samples of 60 participants (30 patients with unilateral shoulder pain, 30 healthy controls).
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured at four acupoints-namely, Tianzong (SI 11), Jianliao (SJ 14), Jianyu (LI 15) and Jianzhen (SI 9), on the painful/non-painful side in patients with unilateral shoulder pain or healthy controls, respectively. The correlations between the Peripheral Sensitisation Index (PSI) and Central Sensitisation Index (CSI) were compared.
RESULTS: Analysis showed significantly lower PPT values at acupoints on the painful side compared with the non-painful side in patients with shoulder pain (p<0.025). Meanwhile, PPTs on the non-painful side of these patients were lower than those on the ipsilateral side of healthy controls (p<0.025). No significant differences in PPT values were found between the non-acupoint of the painful/non-painful side in patients with shoulder pain and the ipsilateral side of healthy controls (p>0.05). Additionally, it was observed that the pressure pain assessment acupoints have a strong association with PSI and CSI; three acupoints, in particular, SJ 14, LI 15 and SI 9, showed a correlation with PSI and CSI.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest the presence of peripheral and central sensitisation at acupoints in participants with unilateral shoulder pain. There exists an obvious relationship among the three acupoints SJ 14, LI 15 and SI 9, which are usually chosen to treat shoulder pain. The results provide evidence for the selection of acupoints to treat shoulder pain by acupuncture.

BMJ Open. 2017 Jun 15;7(6):e014438. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014438.

Source: PubMed

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Scalp Acupuncture Attenuates Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Hemorrhagic Stroke

Liu H1, et al.

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 15% of all stroke cases, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Limited human studies suggested that scalp acupuncture could facilitate functional recovery after cerebral hemorrhage. In the current study, we used an animal model of cerebral hemorrhage to examine the potential effects of scalp acupuncture.
METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received autologous blood (50μL) into the right caudate nucleus on the right side under pentobarbital anesthesia, and then received scalp acupuncture (DU20 through GB7 on the lesion side) or sham acupuncture (1cm to the right side of the acupoints) (n=10 per group). A group of rats receiving autologous blood into the caudate nucleus but no other intervention, as well as a group of rats receiving anesthesia but no blood injection to the brain (n=10 per group) were included as additional controls. Composite neuroscore, corner turn test, forelimb placing test, wire hang task and beam walking were used to evaluate the behavior of rats. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes. Western blot was used to detect the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-KappaB (NFκB) protein expression.
RESULTS: Scalp acupuncture attenuated neurological deficits (p<0.01 or <0.05 vs. sham acupuncture using a variety of behavioral tests) at 1-7days after the treatment. The brain content of TNF-α and NFκB was decreased (p<0.01 for both).
CONCLUSIONS: Scalp acupuncture could improve neurological deficits in a rat model of hemorrhagic stroke.

Complement Ther Med. 2017 Jun;32:85-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.03.014. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Source: PubMed

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Liposomal Andrographolide Dry Powder Inhalers for Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia Via Anti-Inflammatory Pathway

Li M1, et al.

Andrographolide (AG) is a chemical entity from traditional Chinese herbs and its oral pills have been applied to the treatment of respiratory inflammation. Here we report pulmonary delivery of liposomal AG dry powder inhalers (LADPIs) for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia. AG liposomes were prepared with the injection method and then freeze-dried for preparation of LADPIs. AG liposomes were small and stable with a mean size of 77.91nm and a zeta potential of -56.13mV. Liposomes were well recovered after re-hydration of LADPIs that were suitable for pulmonary delivery with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 4.87μm and a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 23.03%. However, the MMAD and FPF of AG powders were 10.14μm and 8.37%, respectively. The in vitro anti-S. aureus effects of AG powders and LADPIs were investigated, but were not found. They were intratracheally sprayed into the rat lungs for treatment of S. aureus pneumonia. Surprisingly, LADPIs showed a stronger anti-S. aureus pneumonic effect in vivo, than AG at a ten-fold dose or than an antibiotic, penicillin. LADPIs significantly decreased many pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of IκB-α in the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway was also remarkably inhibited. AG regulated the immune reaction to maintain the antibacterial effect while downregulating inflammatory response so that AG showed a strong effect on bacterial pneumonia. LADPIs are a promising pulmonary delivery medicine for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.

Int J Pharm. 2017 Jun 2;528(1-2):163-171. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.06.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Source: PubMed

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