By James Ramholz
from Oriental Medicine Journal Volume 4, #3"
Pulse diagnosis has always been an enigmatic as well as complex field.
Not surprisingly, acupuncture colleges offer little formal education
in this area even though Li Shi Zhen's Pulse Diagnosis (1) and various editions of the Huang Di Nei Jing have been available for many years.
Even when some of the classical literature on pulses is part of the curriculum, many students complain they receive obscure and conflicting advice
when trying to sense the pulse movement and accurately interpret the information it can provide. Two new books, a translation of the Li Shi Zhen
from Blue Poppy Press and Dr. Leon Hammer's work from Eastland Press,
are promised shortly and should help to amend and renew serious study in
According to Li Shi Zhen there are 27 basic pulse states (2). Most basic
movements can be observed in any of nine fundamental positions (3) on
each wrist. The division of each wrist into three depths forms a grid in which
"the area and nature of the disease can be determined from the wrist pulse."(4) In this nine-sector grid, the cun position indicates diaphragm to crown, the guan position indicates navel to diaphragm, and the chi position navel to feet. The superficial comprises emotional, exterior, and meridian activity, the middle shows organic or metabolic activity, and the deep level shows the bone-level or innermost activity. Together, these sectors create a hologram of the entire body, similar in nature to the mapping of the ear, feet, or eyes.
Mathematically, this nine-sector grid forms 486 simple combinations. Because each state is never seen alone but combined with one or more types of energy--what Li Shi Zhen calls a "composite pulse" (5)-- the possibilities quickly expand (6). In developing a model of this sophistication, we can create a diagnosis system as rich and as varied as there are conditions or patients. By adopting the criteria of Li Shi Zhen we can anticipate a method of diagnosis and treatment that is truly as unique as the patient. Ultimately, we can have a far richer description than 5-elements; we could calculate 5 elements of 5-elements of 5-elements. A model this detailed gives us a much clearer picture of cancer, AIDS, and other forms of chronic illness.
Unfortunately, no current American text exploits this level of sophistication and complexity. Typically contemporary texts divide the pulse levels into the yang and yin organs, then specify a diagnosis method using Eight Confirmations in the cun, guan, or chi positions. Many different types of problems are reduced to the same, simple rubrics- -"stagnated liver energy," "dampness in the spleen," etc. As a result, complicated and chronic problems can easily be misunderstood, misdiagnosed, and inappropriately treated. Compounding this problem is the difficulty of the subject matter itself, differentiating and interpreting subtle activity inherent in pulses especially for chronic and catastrophic illnesses which present highly complex pulse patterns. It is unrealistic to work with models like the Li Shi Zhen without comprehensive classroom study and extensive clinical practice with supervision. This problem is further compounded by confusing and conflicting information in the Li Shi Zhen itself.
Thankfully, Li Shi Zhen provides us with an important tool, asserting that all this can be made less complicated:
The theory of the pulse is very complicated but it is based
upon the four principles--floating, sinking, slow, and rapid.
Once they are understood, by elaborating on them, the entire subject can be clarified.(7)
Li Shi Zhen asks us to divide the pulse into yang and yin vectors along vertical and horizontal lines of symmetry, a type of fourfold analysis. For him, pulse diagnosis is an art of deconstruction, a geometry of meaning.
The model that best includes both these dimensions is the Tai Chi diagram, a broad and familiar abstraction that can also be used to decipher the particulars of its applications. It is the classic emblem of complementary opposites, cyclic continuity in time, and harmonious interrelationship--all essential parameters of health in the human body. Yang rises vertically and accelerates horizontally; yin sinks vertically and decelerates horizontally. Using the Tai Chi symbol as our paradigm, we can analyze how yang and
yin should ideally communicate, exchange, and balance.
The circle itself is a traditional symbol of unity. The sine wave through the diameter of the circle is the ideal and basic pulse wave. It is the result of balance, interaction, and harmony. Any deviation from it provides information on how yin and yang have changed from that balance and what are the consequences for health. All 27 pathological pulse states discussed by Li Shi Zhen can be derived from it.
Tai Chi is process-orientated, coherent, evolving, and interactive in contrast to the typical emphasis on substance or "solid" components. In it, yang and yin are more than their sum; they create and dynamically balance each other. As a complex system, the Tai Chi diagram can be seen in a wide range of natural scales and applications--the double-helix of the DNA molecule, the change of day and night, the spiral nature of galaxies. Because this symbol is found at the heart of Taoist philosophy, the Chinese 60-year calendar, feng shui, martial arts, and a variety of other systems, it can be used as a basis for analysis and comparison of those systems.
We can simplify the work of Li Shi Zhen one step further by creating a list of the most fundamental pulses. As a basic group, they illustrate a view of the essential dimensions and types of energies found in all pulses. It is important to note that they are derived from a balanced pulse state and fulfill Li Shi Shen's fourfold criteria:
- Healthy or Balanced
- Floating & Sinking
- Rapid & Slow
- Big/Small, Long/Short
- Slippery & Choppy
The Healthy or Balanced Pulse
When Li Shi Zhen speaks of the different qualities of a normal pulse in section 3.2 (8), the descriptions he uses are not "normal" nor "healthy" in either a theoretical or clinical sense. This data entirely contradicts the pathological indications described later in the book by the terms scattered, choppy, blocked, wiry, tight, slippery, soft, etc. Only the description of the middle
pulse of the spleen and stomach feeling "regular, neither fast nor slow" comes
close to accurately portraying the energetic balance, coordination, and harmony expected in a healthy person. Clearly, these descriptions are typical
of critical problems associated with those organs.
Inherent to this system is the communication and symmetry of yin and
yang. The sine wave is formed from the synergy and coordination between
yin and yang. Their dynamic is nonlinear, not simply the sum of isolated or
independent elements. This relationship is as important as the constituents
and becomes their context as well as genesis. The Tai Chi movement represents the ability of living systems to continuously regulate and renew themselves and to regulate this process in such a way that their integrity and
structure is maintained--what is today sometimes called autopoiesis.
We would expect other systems to be derived from this one, and in fact
we see it at the heart of many illustrations in Chinese philosophical and
medical literature. Whereas a machine is geared to output a specific product, a living organism is primarily concerned with renewing itself. We should
expect to see this sine wave in all healthy relationships and in the pulse
positions of a healthy person. Therefore, any deviation from this wave movement provides us with important information about what is happening to
the energy of the patient or the body's response to disease and the environment. It is the way systems cycle or energetically perpetuate themselves.
Pulse Wave Energy Segments
- AB qi Yang/yang function
- BC qi Yin/yang function
- CD xue Yin/yin capacity
- DE xue Yang/yin capacity
The Normal pulse is often identified with the stomach energy because it is the organ which supplies nourishment and support for all others. Together with the spleen, the earth Phase absorbs, coordinates, and transforms; five elementally, it is at the center of the sine wave movement. The dampness or substantial quality sometimes attributed to its pulse character is indicative of that nurturing and supportive role. That central importance is emphasized in the seasonal 5-Phase scheme: each Phase communicates with the spleen before cycling to the next Phase in the shen cycle (9).
In a perfectly healthy person, all the pulses would present this smooth, balanced sine wave movement connected at all positions and depths- -and
it should be present during the entire year, not only in late summer. While
the seasonal energy will have some influence in the pulses, emotions have a much stronger and immediate influence. The energy movements of the four seasons add their wave shapes to the patient's energetic movement.
The interactions of those two wave forms uniquely describe the patient's reaction to the seasonal change.
The basic wave can be further analyzed by dividing it into its yang and yin components. The normal pulse begins with an ascending or yang movement. The convex portion indicates the yang energy or qi of the movement
[ABC], while the concave portion describes the state of yin energy or blood of each organ [CDE]. To determine the balance within this movement, check the size, angles, and texture of the yang portion and compare it to the yin portion. Ideally, the yin and yang portions of each pulse should be symmetrical, hold the same capacity, and display the same textures. A sharper
angle of ascent indicates that the pulse contains more yang energy or heat;
a smoother angle indicates that yin is more prevalent. If the ascending movement is more prominent, the pulse will have a tendency to float; when the
descending movement is more prominent it will have a tendency to sink
(10). When the rising movement is dominant it can also have a tendency to
be more superficial or express an acute syndrome. If it is a chronic condition
the syndrome expressed will be light, superficial, or immediate.
If the pulse begins with a descending motion (the sine wave is reversed),
the organ energy is reversing and, if more than one pulse position presents
this reversal, the mother-son rule of the 5-Phase theory is breaking down
and the condition is more critical.
Symptoms are created by contrasts in function, energy, or movement. The
capacity of a pulse movement to create symptoms can be measured by the
area of the yang [ABC] or yin [CDE] portion of the pulse. For example, if the
yin portion of the pulse is larger, then the yin energy has the greater capacity to express a symptom. The pulse is not necessarily obliged to express this capacity, but we can see the potential for expression. And our diagnosis
does not have to rely solely on the patient's report of their symptoms; we can observe problems before the patient can be aware of them. This capability of pulse reading is essential in discriminating the root of the problem
from the branch; as well as in cases where the patient has forgotten, is unaware, or is hiding aspects of the condition.
These elementary rules can be applied repeatedly as tools to analyze any
pulse shape or energy. Taking the first half or yang portion as our focus, the
movement going up is yang of yang while the second movement of the
first half of the basic wave is yin of yang. In the yin portion of the basic
wave, the movement descending is yin of yin; the movement ascending to
the horizontal axis is yang of yin. The yang of yin portion connects to the
next pulse position, feeding its yang of yang movement.
The clinical implications of this fourfold analysis are far-reaching (11). Let's
consider several examples of a Flooding (hong) pulse, which can, in general,
indicate heat or bacterial inflammation. First, we need to keep in mind that
when the upbeat is yang, it indicates the qi and when the downbeat is yin,
it indicates blood. The ascending movement of a Flooding pulse can be
smaller than the descending motion, or the rising motion can be larger than
the descending motion. These two pulses offer us different information even
though both are Flooding.
Both present bacterial inflammation with a certain range of fever or temperature. Where the downbeat is larger it indicates that the yin energy or
blood is more influenced by the heat than the qi therefore we should expect more pus formation and lymphatic blockage. In the other example,
heat affects the qi more, and we should expect a higher fever but less pus
If we want to see if the heat expressed in the Flooding pulse is affecting
the upper or the lower body, we can observe it the chi, guan, cun divisions. If
the Flooding pulse is moving towards the cun it indicates that it is affecting
the upper part of the body and if it is moving towards the chi it indicates
that it is affecting the lower part of the body.
Consider the wave movement in the chi position of the right wrist, the large intestine. A pulse that rises in a normal sine curve but becomes wiry in
the yin portion before it returns to the horizontal axis indicates that qi is not a problem but there is some problem in the yin or blood movement related to that organ. It may indicate that some heavier materials are stagnating and the organ itself is now being affected because that heavy material has not been eliminated. The organ does not have enough energy so elimination is impaired, building toward a toxic condition.
If the situation was reversed and the upbeat was wiry and the downbeat was normal, it would indicate that the large intestine itself is affected energetically and not able to handle routine material. The organ itself is the problem rather than the material that the organ is managing. The difference between these two conditions can be illustrated by a person trying to lift a box who cannot do it. There are two possible reasons: either the person is too weak or the box is too heavy. If the downbeat is the problem, it indicates that the box is too heavy; if the upbeat is the problem, it indicates that the person trying to lift it is too weak.
Floating (fu) & Sinking (chen)
Floating and Sinking refer to the movement on the vertical axis of symmetry independent of the horizontal. The Floating pulse is found at the superficial level and the sinking pulse in the deep level. Generally, the Floating pulse indicates yang excessiveness due to wind or heat, and the Sinking pulse indicates yin excessiveness due to cold energy. Floating and Sinking refer primarily to the depth at which the pulse is found. Floating and Sinking can also refer to the direction the energy is moving along the vertical axis, even when found at different pulse depths or sectors. We may sense degrees of a Floating or Sinking state as a stronger yang of yang movement or yin of yin movement.
Rapid (shuo) & Slow (chi)
Rapid and Slow refer to movement alone the horizontal axis of symmetry
and the speed of the pulse movement when compared to the patient's breathing. The normal or balanced pulse is four beats per breath. A Rapid pulse is more than 4 beats per breath. A Slow pulse is less than 2 beats per breath. A pulse can become Rapid due to a "deficiency of yin and an excess of yang" energy. The Slow pulse results from "a deficiency of yang and an excess of yin"(22). In general, the Slow pulse indicates cold energy and Rapid pulse indicates hot energy. If the pulse moves faster than 6 beats or slower than 2 it is an extremely critical sign, usually indicative of death; yang and yin no longer communicate with each other and are about to be cut.
When the pulse is excessively fast, the energy will be cut at the chi position, move towards the cun, and finally
disappear. When the pulse is excessively slow, the energy will cut off at the cun position and move towards the chi and finally disappear. For these two examples simply compare the energy of someone who just came out of a sauna and is about to faint from the heat to someone who was exposed to freezing weather and is about to pass out.
When the pulses are slow in comparison to the rate of
breathing, we can say that the patient does not have sufficient yang energy or that his interior can be cold or damp. The Rapid pulse indicates that there is too much heat, that the condition is affecting the upper warmer, or that it is taking place at the surface. It could be excessiveness or it could be a condition caused by an attack of perverse energy, etc. Heat in the interior, for example near the bone, will be found in the deep level but will present a rapid movement. A slow movement at the superficial level indicates cold energy invading at the surface of the body.
Big & Small, Long (chang) & Short (duan)
Big and Small refer to the vertical dimension of the wave form, its amplitude. In general they indicate the amount of active qi available at a given moment. Long and Short refer to the horizontal dimension of the wave, its frequency. These pulses indicate the capacity of the related organs, and are often related to the hot and cold energy balance. Big and Long pulses indicate that the qi flow is greater than the blood flow, while the Small and Short pulses indicate that the blood flow is greater than the qi flow.
The horizontal dimension of the pulse wave indicates what the capacity the wave form holds. Compare the vertical movement to voltage and the horizontal to wattage. So if it is Big and Long it means that the output is strong, but if it is Small and Short it means that the output is diminished but the movement can still last for an extended period of time. When the pulse is Small it means that it will not last because it does not have enough energy support to continue. Endurance or the capacity of a particular stress, that is how long it will last, depends on the horizontal movement.
Slippery (hua) & Choppy (se)
These two states describe specific textures of the pulse wave and not necessarily the shape itself. The previous pulse states show a yang/yin scale in specific dimensions, these two pulse states are a comparison between the qi and blood and illustrate the relationship of qi within the blood and the blood within the qi--similar to the portion of the Tai Chi symbol which shows yang within yin, and yin within yang.
The Slippery pulse feels "round and smooth and flows evenly"(13). The sensation is like touching oil or wet and hard beads, it curves evenly up and then back down. In general it indicates dampness or that qi is deficient in comparison to blood. Li Shi Zhen comments (14) that a Slippery pulse can be created when yuan qi fails "and is unable to hold liver and kidney fire." Typically you can expect mucus secretion or, if it is the dominant character, a blockage to the blood flow with very low qi movement. You will commonly verify a mucus problem by looking at the spleen's relationship to the other involved organs. It can be found in women during pregnancy; and, if over forty, it will be evident in the menopause pattern.
The Choppy pulse feels "thin, minute, and short and has an uneven flow, beating three and five times with an irregular rhythm." It is often described as feeling like touching very fine sandpaper or a "knife scraping bamboo"(15).
In terms of our Tai Chi model, the horizontal movement of the qi is not supported by the yin energy. Like the knife, the momentum pushes forward but is carried in a jerky motion. In general, it feels very thin and irregular, making it sometimes difficult to flow. It indicates a dry condition, where qi is more abundant then blood. It can often be observed in anemic patients and in those recovering from surgery because of blood loss.
A Knotted pulse is an indication of excessive yin- -"whenever excessive perverse yin qi coagulates"(l6). A Knotting pulse does not always occur every pulsation and can appear irregularly. It indicates energy blockages, mucus blocks, moving clots, cysts, tumors, and even cancer. This pulse tends to hold the peak for a prolonged period of time and then drop, or hold the bottom and go up without a pronounced peak.
As a general rule, we know that a deficiency of yin will lead to an excess of yang. If yin energy becomes deficient, the pulse will not be able to connect to the deep level. This will be compensated by the further growth of Yang energy or further strengthening of the upbeat. But since the yang movement cannot go beyond the top level, which is superficial, it will compensate by a build up intensity at that level. As the yin energy becomes more and more deficient, the strength of the yang upbeat will bud correspondingly, manifesting in a Knotted pulse with a pronounced peak. If the energy is Knotting in every pulsation, it is more serious and might indicate cancer. In this last case, it shows a severe loss of stability of the Tai Chi equilibrium.
If this pulse shows up between two pulse waves as an independent movement, then it could be an early sign of cancer, even though it is not clearly Knotting in the organic wave. In some cancer movements, the pulse can be felt to rise and actually knot or vibrate in situ: without a descending movement. This Knotted state-- as well as others which we will look at later--is usually picked up in the top or bottom of each pulsation but they can occur in other levels of each wave as well.
- Translated by Hoc Ku Huynh and published by Paradigm Publications in
1981. This text is sometimes referred to by its author's name, as the Li Shi
Zhen. It is a translation of a modern commentary of Li Shi Zhen's work, and
the most complete source currently available in English.
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 116
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 5 Each pulse position--cun, guan, and chi--is divided into three vertical levels on both wrists. Each wrist would then form a nine-sector or tic-tac-toe pattern.
- Li Shi Zhen, Pulse Diagnosis, p. 6
- Li Shi Zhen, Pulse Diagnosis, p. 11
- 27 shapes times 27 shapes times 18 sectors = 23,122. This number is an
arbitrary one because there are a variety of ways to calculate possible wave
shape combinations. The complexity depends on the model chosen.
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 11
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 7
- Maciocia, Giovanni, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine, p. 18-29
- See later in the article for details of Floating and Sinking.
- In clinic, the basic pulse should also be compared to different body types but we are limited in space and cannot do so here. Briefly, when looking at the basic wave analyze the ratio of qi and blood. You should expect the yang
portion to be larger in thin and skinny people because a skinny person has a
greater ratio of qi to body weight. If a very skinny person has the same size
upbeat as downbeat, the downbeat is either too big or his qi is insufficient. In
either case, there is an disparity in the energy balance their body should hold.
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 16-17
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 68
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 69. The clinical examples given in this section also mention that a Slippery pulse results "when there is an abundance of yang qi in the body." The other examples offered here are due to excessive yin energy, most often mucus created from wind and heat.
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 70
- Pulse Diagnosis, p. 25. Also see my article, "Cancer from the Perspective of Dong Han Pulse Diagnosis," in
Oriental Medicine Volume 3, #2.
James Ramholz, Dipl.Ac., O.M.D., is the author of Shaolin & Taoist Herbal Training Formulas (Silk Road Books, 1992). He currently writes, teaches and maintains private practices in Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado.E-mail: